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Cartography is the practice of making maps as well as the study of maps, particular, cartography is concerned with all phases of map finishing, including the designing of format and symbolization; drafting, editing, and proofing of map content; and specifying requirements for reproduction.

Map & Allied map Making Process:

  1. Collection, Organization and Manipulation of data
  2. Design and Preparation of Maps
  3. Map Reproduction

Cadastral mapping is the only means of providing accurate, legitimate, comprehensive, precise, and readily available records of information regarding legal land rights. Establishing titles; urban planning, development, and financing; informing land policies; granting use of national property; land readjustment, which subdivides irregular shaped parcels for the sake of standarding utility services; transfer of development rights; improving property tax collection; and mapping and valuation of informal land


Cartography is considered as the theory and practice of mapmaking and map use, notably in the context of graphic communication. The key issue between cartography and GIS is that cartography
is concerned with representation while GIS is concerned with analysis of spatial relationships.

  • General Reference: Shows general geographic information such as roads, rivers, lakes, oceans, political boundaries, mountains, and cities. These maps are used for road maps, political maps, some topographic maps, and anytime someone needs a general all-purpose map.
  • Topographic Maps: A topographic map refers to a detailed, graphical, and accurate representation of features that appear on the Earth’s surface.
  • Thematic: portray a specific theme and features related to that theme. Examples of thematic maps include a map of crime in a district, locations where a disease has been contracted, population density, the spread of a species or the range where a species can survive, flood damage, temperature data, and more.
  • Navigation Charts: Navigation Charts combine aspects of topographic, general reference and thematic maps and are produced as navigation aids for ships, boats and aircraft.
  • Cadastral Maps and Plans: Cadastre is a technical term for a st of records showing the extent, value and ownership (or other basis for use or occupancy) of land.  GIS technology is an essential tool for producing current and easily accessible maps, leveraging database information, and automating enterprise work processes in cadastre management.